Introduction:

As many progressive reforms through the decades of the 60s and 70s allowed minorities and marginalized sections to access the existing school facilities, the average school size in the United States became large (Harvey, 1971). The rising demand for education, along with declining learning levels in schools, created the perception that the US was failing its students (A Nation At Risk, 1983). Policy-makers believed that it was because of large school-sizes, teachers were not able to teach, and students were not able to learn. The school-size reduction was the only way through which the American education system could be…


Introduction

Unlike western countries, research on school leadership and management in developing countries is quite sparse. In the Indian context, it is the head-teacher (also known as the principal, headmaster, or principal teacher) who occupies the central role in the school leadership and management. A typical day of a school principal involves enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of teachers, students, and parents toward achieving common educational aims (Wise, Stutchbury & Cooke, 2016). From the effective utilization of resources to establishing a healthy relationship with the local community, the head-teachers in India bear the vast responsibilities. The School Leadership…


Introduction

The interest in early childhood care and education (ECCE) has risen sharply in the last decade or so. Several studies have shown that early childhood education and care are crucial for brain development, cognitive growth, and even for the long-term prosperity of individuals. There has also been a realization that without improving early childhood care and education, it would not be possible for countries to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs). This awareness has led many countries to reform their early childhood care and education programs to make them comprehensive and responsive to the needs of the children. …


Analyzing the policy of appointment of contractual teachers in formal schools using Frank Fischer’s framework

Post-Independence India witnessed an uneven growth in the area of school education. States such as Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka made rapid strides in universalizing the primary education. These states enjoyed a historical advantage in terms of literacy and access to education. The demand for education, in these states, was further fuelled by the presence of strong social movements which saw education as an instrument for social transformation. Critical consciousness among the masses, coupled with emancipatory politics resulted in the significant contribution towards the public…


John opens up gradually and reveals that he is a Cro-magnon (caveman from the prehistoric times) who has lived for more than 14000 years. He keeps changing his identity and relocating himself every ten years to hide his immortality. He begins his story in the guise of science fiction melodrama, asking his colleagues to give it a thought, even if hypothetically. As the plot develops, John stops being hypothetical and provides answers from a first-person perspective. John shares how he was part of great civilizations and even became a disciple of Buddha. He was lucky enough to travel alongside Columbus…


Since the time of Aristotle, philosophers have been engaged in answering the big questions such as; what is the nature of reality? How the knowledge about this reality can be accessed and ascertained? Responses to these questions determine the way we perceive the world and then go on exploring and investigating it. One of the most dominant paradigms in the philosophy of the research has been the positivism. Positivism takes the reality as fixed, which can be broken into pieces. These pieces are put together to make an understanding of the whole. The positivist perspective in social sciences uses principals…


Last week, I finished reading Dvora Yanow’s book ‘Conducting Interpretive Analysis. Yanow has been in the forefront of the movement which has proposed an alternative to the traditional way of policy analysis, where policy goals were considered as the ‘measurable facts.’ This development was part of a movement towards a more wholesome analysis of the phenomenon or a given reality. It was also helped by, in parts, by the publication of texts such as ‘social construction of reality’ etc. where the reality was actively constructed by the subjects, and they were not the mere ‘targets.’ During the 70s and 80s…


Though I have been interested in the area of policy advocacy and analysis, my engagement in the area has been limited to a practitioner’s point of view. In all the areas I worked in, the gap between the policy intentions and the actual implementation was so large that the whole exercise of consensus building and the policy making seemed to me farcical and overly-ritualistic. I was deeply skeptical of the idea of popular participation in the policy making process as the policies, for me, always emerged out of authoritative choices of the establishment. Colebatch’s book helped me in clearing some…


While public policy and its related disciplines have received greater attention in last few years, the scope of the analysis has been very limited. Most of the times the discourse is just about whether one agrees or disagrees with a particular policy or a set of recommendations the government has come up with. People at the periphery figures in these discussions only if there is a flood or draught like situation, or epidemic or the large-scale violence which has taken the ‘democratic’ policy out of its slumber.

We only see a crisis in agriculture, when there are farmers’ suicide in…


The role of civil society in mobilizing popular grievances has significantly diminished since the liberalization. Once considered an anti-thesis to the state and corporate interests, and an equal opportunity space for the oppositional discourses, the civil society has also gone through the major restructuring in the last two decades. This reimagining has been the part of the global restructuring process where concerns of efficiency, performance, positive outcomes, predictability and control have increasingly become the hallmarks of the success and achievement. The NGOisation of the development work in the post-liberalization era and the acquiesce of the civil society organizations to the…

Anurag Shukla

EdTech, Educational Data Sciences, Childhood Studies, History of Education & Policy Sociology, curate @central_ed , Currently @IIMAhmedabad

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store